2042 - KA Cluster, 125 year celebrations.
2042 - Future wellbeing overwrites debt as a source of value production.
2041 - The Cluster co-institutes economies of trust and attention. Local skirmishes of capture break out, there is a diffused sense of emergency, a low-grade war in the political economy of attention.
2041 - At the Helium-3 colony, nanotech swarms mine off-world resources.
2040 - UN-M Report on Human Mobility records that almost 720 million people are currently residing in a city outside their place of birth, with resource stress implications on regions of origin, transit, and destination.
2039 - KA Cluster sponsored Article 39, UN-MDHR, adopted.
2039 - Our Composite meshwork is live. Protected by the GPL v4, all data, information and knowledge, every archive, database, collection, and DNA storage device is accessible live, and in real time.
2038 - With the production of assemblies for 1:1 replication, singularity is overwritten by difference.
2037 - KA agent cluster propose and lobby for Article 39 UN-MDHR, to extend rights to organic-synthetic assemblies.
2036 - Cadarache Research Centre in southern France, commission the Faraday Experimental Reactor (FER) and nuclear fusion finally comes on stream.
2036 - Major KA Cluster research project Almost Real: Composite Consciousness is an exploration of logistical, distributed ‘subject’ relations and the social identity of those present, and those not.
2035 - Private energy and critical service infrastructures begin to be taken into local Multitude stewardship. Energy is the largest local currency by volume, transacted globally.
2034 - Pressure from looming Patent and Copyright dissent encourages the UN-Multitude Commons Legislation to revert restrictive property terms, to a standard 15 years.
2034 - The Clusters co-developed Multitude Affinity Index (M_AI) is deployed. The index measures how logistical assemblies experience their emotional connections with others, and the strength of those relationships.
2033 - Increasing energy prices, extreme climate fluctuations and waves of nutritional stress produce a Resource Crisis in Europe. There is a leaking away of source social capitals, like affinity, trust and generosity.
2032 - The Cluster’s first Simpatia Building, Fortaleza, in the Ceará region of Brazil experiments with additively manufactured habitats, responsive to emotional economies.
2032 - Denmark declared first carbon-neutral regional economy, and Copenhagen (2035) the first retrofitted carbon-neutral city. Masdar City in Abu Dhabi was purpose built and carbon neutral in 2023.
2031 - Organic-synthetic assemblies pass 1950s Turing Test, an evolutionary firewall is breached.
2030 - The KA Cluster is at root, as agency overwrites spectatorship.
2029 - Neural headsets widely available with intellectual and emotional firewalls as standard. Firewalls produce the securities necessary for connected privacy, ordered liberty and democratic self government.
2029 - Trust, circulating through logistical systems of attention; systems of capture, accumulation, and distribution, produce new ecologies of value; The KA Cluster is a super-node in these economies.
2028 - Operating System: Governance, social research adds an executable function to the KA Cluster’s research and exhibitionary core.
2028 - Carbon Tipping Point (CTP) hydrocarbon use peaks, emissions recorded at 42.7 Gtons. Median life expectancy reaches 100.
2027 - Various global models of Multitude Governance are at work - e.g. adhocracies, convivia, grupos de afinidad - within dynamic processes of development, composed of regional identities and interest communities.
2027 - Singularity Art Bond market suspended, coincides with mass private museum collapse; collections revert to the commons under local Multitude stewardship.
2026 - Denmark is the first EU region to declare two meat free days - Thursday and Friday - following the lead of Wales, Argentina, and the swarming US-Multitude.
2026 - Sovereign Debt markets seize, trillions of Aggregate Assets (AAs) are wiped off indices. Panic ensues, trust evaporates triggering a partial banking collapse. Giant mutuals pour liquidity into institutions, financial markets begin to reorientate around sustainable asset classes.
2025 - United Arab League (UAL) records that education, research, museum, heritage and tourism account for a greater proportion of the Wellbeing Index (WI) than hydrocarbon exports.
2025 - Resilience Accounting legislation, and Ethical Rating Agencies redirect asset valuations and capital flows to socially productive assemblies.
2024 - The KA Cluster’s landmark research Transactional Aesthetics, attends to the lines of force, the transactions, that produce subjects, objects and institutions.
2023 - In December at the Academy for Organic Architecture at Ranchi, West Bengal, a prototype self-organising organic-synthetic assembly displays the ability to sense, calculate and act.
2023 - The Great Refusal, mass boycott of representational democratic processes.
2022 - KA Cluster is globally distributed; nodes emerge in fledgling Indian, east Asian and Brazilian Multitudes.
2022 - At the iCommons Governance Summit in São Paulo, Brazil, guidelines are drafted, proposed and implemented on Radical Transparency.
2022 - KA Cluster initiates Ex Habere: the Practice of Exhibition.
2021- The UN-M Resource Strategy reports that speculative financial technologies force an additional 75 million people into starvation. Resource markets are firewalled from algo-trading, and the Nutritional Commons founded.
2021 - The Singularity Art Bond is issued by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in co-operation with Morgan Capital Management of the British Virgin Islands.
2021 - First Additive Fabricating Network (AFN) organises in Brazil. The New Industrial Convergence marks the end of the factory, and the beginning of local, hub and bespoke distributed assemblies.
2020 - Frieze Art Academy opens in Beijing, China. First of the asset academies, others soon follow in Sao Paulo, Basel and the Cayman Islands.
2020 - iCommons knowledge meshwork, a precursor to Composite is initiated by the Multitude. Protected by GPL v4, iCommons began as an index of all resources currently held in common.
2019 - Foundation of the Multitude global civil society coalition, Madrid. The Multitude develops social protocols for scalable local governance and administration.
2019 - Officially recognised in the UN - Population Division Outlook on Global Mobility report, the first Climate Refugees.
2018 - UBUNTU_M, a lean FLOSS stack for mobile devices extends commons knowledge and banking practices to the previously disenfranchised. 53.4 % of the global population are subsequently connected.
2018 - KA, Canonical and the ICA London reanimate Cybernetic Serendipity through multiple locations.
2017 - Kunsthal Aarhus (KA) spectacular centenary celebrations. KA launch a groundbreaking periodic exhibition concept Den Permanente.
2017 - Year long celebration of European Capital of Culture, Aarhus, Denmark.
2017 - Tate, Guggenheim and The Louvre open branches in the Cultural District of Saadiyat Island, near Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.
2016 - Global auction franchises acquire a range of commercial and public/private galleries in major art market consolidation. Opening of Tate Modern v2.0, London.
2016 - The Art Auction Transaction Tax (AATT) is a boutique secondary market micro-tax. Revenues raised resource primary sites of creativity; public education, commonwealth assemblies, and emerging art practices.
2015 - Cultures of Resilience associates. Two year-long Collective Making research programme initiated at Kunsthal Aarhus.
2015 - The World Bank and regional market regulators introduce a blanket micro-tax of 0.05% on every financial transaction. Transaction Tax resources begin to flow from financial trading to state treasuries.
2014 – UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, confirms real time affects – melting sea ice and thawing permafrost in the Arctic, heat waves, drought, heavy rains, threats to global food stocks, and human security. The climate change ‘debate’ is over.
2014 - The exhibition Aarhus Rapport – Avantgarde as network (or, the politics of the ultralocal) takes place in Kunsthal Aarhus. It takes as its point of departure the book Århus Rapport 1961-1969, published in 1969 by Århus Kunstforening af 1847 (Aarhus Art Society of 1847).
2013 - Århus Kunstbygning becomes Kunsthal Aarhus and initiates the Systemics Series, a two year-long exhibition thread.
2011 - Various Occupy factions, including Occupy Finance, coalesce as the Rolling Jubilee Fund (RJF), buying tranches of personal debt, and then annulling them. Debt begins to replace labour as a social bond.
2010 - Procesos de Archivo at Intermediæ in Madrid is an experimental programme for contemporary creative practice, aimed at producing an immanent institution.
2010 - WikiLeaks marks the division of information into private monopolies, state darkpools, and the emerging commonwealth. US National Security (NSA) disclosures by Edward Snowden (2013) accelerate the balkanization of information, knowledge and their infrastructures.
2009 - The Bitcoin protocol is the first large-scale, global, cryptographic FLOSS, peer-to-peer electronic currency meshwork.
2009 - MayDay Rooms launch in London as a (counter) institution dedicated to collecting, preserving, and enabling access to archives of dissent and radical expression.
2008 - Christie’s auction house buys Haunch of Venison, a blue-chip commercial gallery in London, and initiates a slow collapse between the historic division between primary and secondary art markets.
2008 - At the Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven director Charles Esche invites artists, curators and visitors to Plug In to the museum, according to self-initiated exchanges.
2007 - 19 of Kenya's 44 million population subscribe, and a quarter of the country's money economy flow through M-Pesa, a digital peer-currency mobile banking meshwork.
2006 - Århus Kunstbygning is transferred to a private foundation, the Foundation Århus Kunstbygning. The Foundations Board consists of representatives from ProKK, ÅK Friends, Aarhus University, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, and a representative nominated by The Department of Culture at Aarhus Kommune.
2006 - The UN’s Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Norway, is to collect and store a re-bootable backup of our plant germplasm.
2005 - The House of Artists Association dissolves and reforms as the Association for Professional Artists and Craftsmen (ProKK), Aarhus.
2005 - Derivatives market (one of the big-five financial markets) is old-US $516 trillion annually, ten times world Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
2005 - FLOSS code and ethics meets digital fabrication techniques as GNUcraft. In 2008, GNUcraft in Bristol, England, release the source code of the Darwin Rep-Rap, a self-replicating fabricator.
2004 - The ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum opens, 10 storeys tall with a total floor area of 17, 000 m². An architectural competition in 2011 results in a popular rooftop addition, Your Rainbow Panorama by Ólafur Elíasson.
2004 - Critical Practice, a cluster of individual artists, researchers, academics and others, supported by Chelsea College of Art and Design, London, develop critical practice within art, the field of culture and its organization.
2003 - The first Frieze Art Fair, London, features over 124 of the most powerful commercial art galleries in the world, it attracts over 27,000 visitors, and reports sales of £20 million.
2003 - Ólafur Elíasson represents Denmark at the 50th Venice Biennale.
2003 - Århus Kunstbygning undergoes substantial renovation and expansion.
2001 - Wikipedia - popular precursor of iCommons - fuses a FLOSS ethic of open, free, distributed and cooperative production, to knowledge.
2001 - In the midst of the financialisation of knowledge and its production, the Copenhagen Free University is founded in Denmark, an artist run institution dedicated to the emancipatory potential of research and learning.
2001 - Battle of Orgreave, by Jeremy Deller, recreates a defining moment for de-industrialised Europe, and fuses some of the legacies of institutional critique with artworks that engage directly in social processes.
2000 - The House of Artists Association merge with the Århus Kunstbygning. The Association's former building in Saltholmsgade is sold, and the profits finance redevelopment in 2003.
2000 - The Human Genome Project (HGP) released the 3 billion DNA letter sequence of the human genome, the ‘software of life’, into the commons.
2000 - Tate Modern is London’s first dedicated museum of modern art, and attracts some five million visitors and generates an estimated 100m in economic benefits in the first year; the 'museum effect'.
1999 - Hou Hanru and Hans-Ulrich Obrist’s exhibition Cities On The Move, takes the Asian city as its subject; has multiple international iterations and mutates in each venue.
1998 - Curiosity privatised as Google Search is released: ‘Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.’
1998 - A coalition of researchers and practitioners develop a model of research-practice that is innovative, and radically public at the Sarai, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) Delhi, India.
1994 - Andrea Fraser and Helmut Draxler produce Services, in Luneburg, Germany. The evolving exhibition, public working group discussion, and publication becomes a manifesto for the second generation of Institutional Critique.
1993 - C.F. Møller Architects design and oversee the discreet expansion of the Århus Kunstbygning with the addition of a large sunken exhibition space illuminated by skylights.
1993 - New Tate Gallery branch opens, St Ives, England.
1992 - Political activist and proponent of institutional critique, Fred Wilson, takes social justice as his subject and the museum as his medium in Mining the Museum, Baltimore, USA.
1991 - Linux operating system (OS), a core language component of the fledgling Knowledge Commons is released.
1989 - Cold War ends: collapse of European Communist states, dissolution of the USSR.
1989 - Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, Switzerland, designs the architecture and publishes the protocols of a primitive network of networks, and the World Wide Web (www).
1989 - The first branch, the northern home, in the ever expanding UK collection of modern art opens as Tate Liverpool.
1987 - House of Artists Association forms, Aarhus.
1986 - Digitally networked global financial markets ‘freed’ from state regulation produced the Big Bang of exponential market expansion and begin the finacialization of everyday life.
1985 - Produced by Richard Stallman and Eben Moglen, the Free Software Foundation and the General Public License (GPL), protect the freedom to use, modify and share source code with others.
1985 - Jean-Francois Lyotard and Thierry Chaput install Les Immateriaux, at the Centre George Pompidou, Paris; an exhibition as a site of research, and a place to practice with philosophical concepts.
1982 - At the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, Grzegorz Kowalski transformed a studio space into a laboratory for artistic actions, performances and interpersonal relations.
1977 - Willy Ørskov installs a sculpture, Sort Granit fra Congo, in front of the Århus Kunstbygning.
1974 - Århus Kunstbygning reopens after its beautiful restoration.
1973 - The first speculative financial market for contemporary art is performed and enacted when the Robert Scull Collection is sold at Sotheby’s, NY.
1973 - John Berger presents Ways of Seeing, on BBC Television, a social history of art which suggests that seeing is inflected by class, gender, ideology and economics - the forces that traditional art history obscures.
1972 - The municipality of Aarhus assumed management of the Århus Kunstbygning. Her Majesty Queen Margrethe visits to view plans for a comprehensive restoration of the original building.
1972 - Joseph Beuys introduces social sculpture to describe the educational interplay between spiritual, material and social spheres at the Free International University of Creativity and Interdisciplinary Research (FIUWAC), Dusseldorf, Germany.
1971 - Womanhouse at California State University, Fresno, USA, consisted of female students working together on an exhibition, performance and consciousness-raising workshops in a house that they simultaneously restored.
1971 - David Hall - a member of APG - creates Seven Television Pieces for Scottish Television, a series of three-minute video artworks, inserted like adverts into regular TV programming.
1969 - With Live In Your Head; When Attitude Becomes Form, at Kunsthalle, Bern, Harald Szeeman changes curatorial practice. From ‘taking care’, to creating, finding funding and producing an artwork, or exhibition.
1969 - Århus Rapport 1961-1969 book is published by Aarhus Art Society of 1847 (Århus Kunstforening af 1847). Edited by Kristen Bjørnkjær, Mogens Gissel and William Louis Sørensen, the book documents experimental art in Aarhus in the Sixties, and is a catalogue of events that took place all over the city including Århus Kunstbygning, at a time during which Aarhus was arguably the central focus for contemporary art in Denmark.
1969 - A loose-knit group of over 300 artists, critics, writers, and arts administrators form the Art Workers Coalition (AWC), NY, and begin the artistic critique of the institutions of art.
1968 - Curator Jasia Reichardt, inspired by Norbert Weiner's cybernetics - explored the feedback loops between technology and creativity in Cybernetic Serendipity at the ICA, London.
1966 - John Latham and Barbara Steveni as the Artist Placement Group (APG) place artists into industry, business and government. They intend their social exchanges to transform institutional structures, and art practice.
1963 - ASCII language translates human readable text into standard machine code.
1959 - American mine owner and philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim collects and exhibits the preeminent private collection of modern and contemporary art at the Guggenheim Museum, in NY.
1958 - Louisiana Museum of Modern Art opens in Humlebæk, north of Copenhagen. Founded by Knud W. Jensen to collect and exhibit modern Danish Art, it quickly adopted a more international focus.
1958 - Curator Pontus Hulten and a few friends organise a small studio for experimental exhibitions and film screenings, slowly this evolves into Moderna Museet, Stockholm.
1955 - Århus Kunstbygning is used for permanent exhibitions of building materials and local produce.
1950 - Mathematician Alan Turing, in his paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence proposes a method to deduce when intelligence of a human level could be evinced by a machine assembly; The Turing Test.
1949 - Lego produces first modular brick, of its global creative platform, in Billund, Denmark.
1948 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines in law ‘Four Basic Freedoms’: freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom from fear and freedom from want.
1947 - Andre Malraux, in Paris, publishes Le Musée Imaginaire (The Museum without Walls) and proposes that the invention of mass-reproduction has introduced a permanent exhibition. We live in a super-museum.
1947 - A loose group of artists, poets and writers initiate the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA), London, as a ‘laboratory’ or ‘playground’ for contemporary arts, a counterpoint to the idea of a Museum of Modern Art.
1940 - During the German occupation, the Århus Kunstbygning is used to stable horses, store uniforms and detain refugees.
1939 - Marcel Duchamp designs a radical exhibition, where the exhibition itself is conceived as a site-specific, total installation: the International Surrealist Exhibition, Galerie des Beaux-arts, Paris.
1937 - Over 5,000 artworks are seized by Nazi authorities, and exhibited to incite revulsion against the ‘perverse Jewish spirit’ permeating culture. The exhibition of Degenerate Art, opens at the Archaeological Museum, Berlin.
1932 - Lego is founded in Billund, Denmark.
1931- A group of radical artists, the ‘a.r.’ group began collecting and exhibiting the most important artists of their time, at what would become Muzeum Sztuki in Łódź, Poland.
1930 - Due to difficult economic conditions, Århus Kunstbygning is rented out to interested organisations.
1929 - At the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, Director Alfred H. Barr adds Architecture, Design, Film and Photography to the traditional departments of Painting, Sculpture, Drawings, and Prints.
1928 - The Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act, enabled women to participate in the political process in the UK.
1927 - In Selfridge’s department store, London, England, John Logie Baird demonstrates the first televised images in motion.
1925 - At the Landesmuseum, Hannover, Director Alexander Dorner, radically re-organizes the collection so that each historical period is simply and logically exhibited. Routes through the museum narrate a chronological history of art.
1924 - Architect Frederick Kiesler creates the L+T System, a flexible and independent display structure to present objects, images and artifacts at the International Exhibition of New Theatre Techniques, Vienna, Austria.
1918- The Grønningen association of artists interested in radical and experimental practice, and members of Den Frie Udstilling (The Free Exhibition) exhibit at Århus Kunstbygning.
1917 - Århus Kunstbygning opens, as an initiative of the Aarhus Art Society of 1847 (Aarhus Kunstforening af 1847), designed by architect A. Hoeg-Hansen in national-classical style as a purpose built exhibition space for contemporary art.
1897 - Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate, philanthropist and major collector of Victorian art offers his collection, as a gift, to the nation. It creates the National Gallery of British Art, soon to become Tate Gallery, London.
1896 - Danish National Gallery, Copenhagen, opens. A collection of 9,000 paintings and sculptures, 300,000 works on paper and 2,600 plaster casts, make it Denmark’s largest art museum, featuring local and international art from the past seven centuries.
1895 - The Lumière brothers assemble the hardware and software of cinema through the first public screening of Sortie des Usines (Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory), in Paris.
1895 - A Biennale is initiated in Venice, Italy, to convene an international market for art.
1891 - The Danish artists association Den Frie Udstilling (The Free Exhibition) is founded to protest against the admission requirements for state sponsored galleries. Modeled on the French Salon des Refusés, the association exhibit works created and selected by contemporary artists rather than those chosen by cultural authorities.
1888 - Kodak’s Box Camera, USA, and processing system marks the advent of popular, and amateur photography’; ‘You press the button, we do the rest.’
1879 - Eadweard Muybridge working in San Francisco, USA, sows the seed of motion pictures, with the development of high-speed cameras and sequential images.
1873 - The Colt 45 handgun, produced in the USA, pioneers interchangeable mass-produced components, vital for the continuous-flow production of industrial manufacturing.
1859 - Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species. Darwin’s research proves that all the rich diversity of life arises by common descent, from a single ancestral cell, rather than from godly creation.
1853 - Henry Cole is appointed head of the new Department of Practical Art, which includes the Museum of Manufactures and the Government School of Design, both located in Marlborough House, London.
1851 - A simple code, devices for encoding, transmitting, and receiving, and a copper-wire network, communicates human readable text. The Morse telegraph system is widely adopted in Europe.
1851 - Henry Cole is a prime mover in the astonishing Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, London. The Great Exhibition is a spectacular celebration of modern industrial technology, art, design and manufacturing.
1848 - The Thorvaldsen Museum, dedicated to neo-classicistic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen opens in Copenhagen.
1847 - The Aarhus Art Society of 1847 (Aarhus Kunstforening af 1847), is founded, in Aarhus. 250 art enthusiasts associate ‘to awaken and spread a general sense of Art and its productions’, through exhibitions, opportunities to collect, lectures and events.
1839 - Louis Daguerre is the first to patent a mechanical/chemical photographic process, in Paris, France.
1837 - Charles Babbage, working with Ada Lovelace design a general-purpose mechanical engine; the Analytical Engine is able to receive, store, process and output information, functions central to computational assemblies.
1830 - King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia commissions Karl Friedrich Schinkel to build a public museum to exhibit the devolved royal art collection, The Altes Museum, Berlin.
1762 - In order to develop arts and crafts to improve the quality of manufactured goods in France, the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs is installed in Paris.
1754 - The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, is founded in London. Its Charter promises to ‘embolden enterprise, enlarge science, refine art, improve our manufacturers and extend our commerce’.
This research was commissioned as part of The Perfect Institution.
Neil Cummings was born in Wales and lives in London, and he is professor at Chelsea College of Arts, and a member of Critical Practice and part of the editorial board of Documents of Contemporary Art with Whitechapel Gallery. He has worked with museums, banks, galleries, archives, auction houses, enthusiasts, places of education and department stores in London, New York, Geneva, Cairo and Warsaw. Cummings has evolved a multidisciplinary art practice that often requires an intense period of research within the specific contexts in which art is produced, distributed and encounters its audiences. Principally, this has meant working directly with museums, galleries, archives and art schools. He often works collaboratively with other artists, curators, academics, researchers or producers to create artworks, exhibitions and events from existing collections or contexts. He has made exhibitions such as Enthusiasm at the Whitechapel Gallery, curated film programmes such as ‘Social Cinema’ which took up several temporary locations in central London, written and edited films such as Museum Futures, and he has distributed books including The Value of Things. Currently, Cummings is interested in the political economy of creativity, and how art is instituted. Together with a part of Critical Practice and a group of utopographers, he has organized Evaluation, Consensus and Location at Chelsea College of Arts, in March, and he has collaborated with Kunsthal Aarhus on The Perfect Institution: Culture 2017.